Glenoid Bone Deficiency in Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Instability: Diagnosis and Management
Recurrent anterior shoulder instability may result from a spectrum of overlapping, often coexistent factors, one of which is glenoid bone loss. Untreated, glenoid bone loss may lead to recurrent instability and poor patient satisfaction. Recent studies suggest that the glenoid rim is altered in up to 90% of shoulders with recurrent instability, thus underscoring the need for careful diagnosis, quantification, and preoperative evaluation. Biomechanical and clinical studies offer criteria that may be used in both primary and revision settings to judge whether shoulder stability is compromised by a bony defect. Along with patient activity level, these criteria can help guide the surgeon in selecting treatment options, which range from nonsurgical care to isolated soft-tissue repair as well as various means of bony reconstitution.